Prof. Dr. Christian Matt

Assistant Professor

Phone
+ 41 31 631 49 67
E-Mail
christian.matt@iwi.unibe.ch
Office
307
Postal Address
Institute of Information Systems (IWI)
Engehaldenstr. 8
CH-3012 Bern
Switzerland
Consultation Hour
Please get in touch with me via email for an appointment

Christian Matt is Assistant Professor of Information Systems at the University of Bern since 2016. He received his PhD in 2013 from Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, where he also worked as an Assistant Professor.

He pursues research, teaching, and consulting on corporate digital transformation and digital value creation, data-based services and privacy, as well as on digital customer interfaces and experiences. In particular, he is fascinated by the socio-technical phenomena and the effects that digital technologies and data have on firms and society alike. This includes interdisciplinary research that addresses such phenomena from a comprehensive, interdisciplinary perspective, and comprises topics such as intelligent decision support systems, IoT, offline/online integration, digital services, privacy, and related digital business models.

Christian Matt worked for SAP as well as a freelancer consultant in the field of IT services and digital business, serving clients across industries, such as software and IT, media, transportation, and enterprise associations. He continues to support firm in their digital transformation efforts, also with dedicated trainings and specific practice-oriented publications on how to manage digital transformation.

He actively engages in cooperation with scholars and firms in various countries as part of several research and consulting projects. For instance, he is co-organizer of the "International Workshop on the Digitization of the Individual" (DOTI) that has taken place in Dublin, Seoul, and San Francisco. He has served as editor and guest editor of several well-known international journals and has been track chair at leading internal conferences to promote research in the academic community.

His research has been published in leading academic and practitioner-oriented journals such as Journal of Management Information Systems, Electronic Markets, Business and Information Systems Engineering, The Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, Internet Research, Government Information Quarterly, MIS Quarterly Executive, and several others.

Academic Career
Since Dec. 2016 Assistant Professor at the University of Bern
2013 - 2016 Assistant Professor at the Institute for Information Systems and New Media, LMU Munich
2009 - 2013 Scientific/Teaching Assistant and Doctoral Candidate at the Institute for Information Systems and New Media, LMU Munich
Education
2017 Habilitation on “Digitization in the Small: Configuration and Effects of Internet Services for Consumers", LMU Munich
2013 Doctorate degree, dissertation on "A Consumer-Centric Approach to Determining the Value of Intermediaries in Electronic Markets", LMU Munich
2011 Master of Business Research (MBR), postgraduate degree, LMU Munich
2009 M.Sc. in Management/M.Sc. in International Business (European Master in Management), LMU Munich/EM Lyon/Aston Business School
2007 M.Sc. in Computer Science, University of Colorado at Boulder
2003 - 2007 Studies of Information Systems at TU Darmstadt
Research Exchanges
2014 - 2019 EM Lyon Business School
2019 Research Fellow at the Weizenbaum-Institute for the Networked Society, Berlin
2018 Hongkong Baptist University
2017 National University of Singapore
2014 Singapore Management University
2011 The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania
Visiting Lecturer
2014 - 2019 EM Lyon Business School
2018 TU Darmstadt
2017 Lancaster University Management School (LUMS)

My research focus in on:

  • Digital Transformation and Digital Value Creation
  • Digital Customer Interfaces and Experiences
  • Data-based Services, Algorithms and Privacy
  • E-Commerce and Digital Business Models

 

Google Scholar Profile: https://scholar.google.com/Christian_Matt

ResearchGate Profile: https://www.researchgate.net/Christian_Matt

 

Journal articles

Martin, N.; Matt, C.;  Niebel, C.; Blind, K. (forthcoming): How Data Protection Regulation Affects Startup Innovation, Information Systems Frontiers.

Neumann, O.; Matt, C.; Hitz-Gamper, B.; Schmidthuber, L.; Stürmer, M. (forthcoming): Joining Forces for Public Value Creation? Exploring Collaborative Innovation in Smart City Initiatives, Government Information Quarterly.

Becker, M.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (forthcoming): It’s Not Just About the Product: How Persuasive Communication Affects the Disclosure of Personal Health Information, The DATA BASE for Advances in Information Systems.

Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Weiß, C. (forthcoming): A Factual and Perceptional Framework for Assessing Diversity Effects of Online Recommendation Systems, Internet Research.

Matt, C.; Trenz, M.; Cheung, CMK.; Turel, O. (2019): The Digitization of the Individual: Conceptual Foundations and Opportunities for Research, Electronic Markets (29:3), pp. 315-322.

Matt, C.; Becker, M.; Kolbeck, A.; Hess, T. (2019): Continuously Healthy, Continuously Used? – A Thematic Analysis of User Perceptions on Consumer Health Wearables, Pacific Asia Journal of the Association for Information Systems (11:1), Article 5.

Berger, M.; Matt, C.; Gönsch, J.; Hess, T. (2019): Is the Time Ripe? How the Value of Waiting and Incentives Affect Users' Switching Behaviors for Smart Home Devices, Schmalenbach Business Review (71:1), pp. 91-123.

Matt, C. (2018): Fog Computing - Complementing Cloud Computing to Facilitate Industry 4.0, Business & Information Systems Engineering (60:4), pp. 351-355.

Heinze, J.; Matt, C. (2018): Reducing the Service Deficit in M-Commerce: How Service-Technology Fit Can Support Digital Sales of Complex Products, International Journal of Electronic Commerce (22:3), pp. 386-418.

Legner, C.; Eymann, T.; Hess, T.; Matt, C.; Böhmann, T.; Drews, P.; Mädche, A.; Urbach, N.; Ahlemann, F. (2017): Digitalization: Opportunity and Challenge for the Business and Information Systems Engineering Community, Business & Information Systems Engineering (59:4), pp. 301-308.

Matt, C.; Hörndlein, C.; Hess, T. (2017): Let the Crowd Be My Peers? How Researchers Assess the Prospects of Social Peer Review, Electronic Markets (27:2), pp. 111-124.

Clemons, E.K.; Wilson, J.; Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Ren, F.; Jin, F. (2016): Global Differences in Online Shopping Behavior: Understanding the Factors that Lead to Trust, Journal of Management Information Systems (33:4), pp. 1117-1148.

Bründl, S.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2016): Daten als Geschäft – Rollen und Wertschöpfungsstrukturen im deutschen Markt für persönliche Daten, Wirtschaftsinformatik & Management (6/2016), pp. 66-71.

Hess, T.; Matt, C.; Benlian, A.; Wiesböck, F. (2016): Options for Formulating a Digital Transformation Strategy, MIS Quarterly Executive (15:2), pp. 103-119.

Köster, A.; Matt, C.; Torremante, T.; Hess, T.; Heinze, J. (2016): Vertrauensbildung durch soziale Empfehlungen: Zur Rolle von Empfehlungssystemen im M-Commerce, Informatik Spektrum (39:2), pp. 147-154.

Morlok, T.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2016): Führung und Privatheit in der digitalen Arbeitswelt - Auswirkungen einer erhöhten Transparenz, Datenschutz und Datensicherheit (40:5), pp. 310-314.

Köster, A.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2016): Carefully Choose your (Payment) Partner: How Payment Provider Reputation Influences M-commerce Transactions, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications (15:1), pp. 26-37.

Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2016): Product Fit Uncertainty and Its Effects on Vendor Choice: An Experimental Study, Electronic Markets (26:1), pp. 83-93.

Berger, B.; Matt, C.; Steininger, D. M.; Hess, T. (2015): It Is Not Just About Competition with “Free”: Differences Between Content Formats in Consumer Preferences and Willingness to Pay, Journal of Management Information Systems (32:3), pp. 105-128.

Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Benlian, A. (2015): Digital Transformation Strategies, Business & Information Systems Engineering (57:5), pp. 339-343.

Hess, T.; Legner, C.; Esswein, W.; Maaß, W.; Matt, C.; Österle, H.; Schlieter, H.; Richter, P.; Zarnekow, R. (2014): Digital Life as a Topic of Business and Information Systems Engineering?, Business & Information Systems Engineering (6:4), pp. 247-253.

Hess, T.; Matt, C. (2012): Gatekeeper in der digitalen Medienwelt, MedienWirtschaft - Zeitschrift für Medienmanagement und Kommunikationsökonomie (9:3), pp. 48-51.

Matt, C. (2012): In-Memory-Technologien für Unternehmensanwendungen, Zeitschrift für Controlling und Management (56:4), pp. 229-230.

Hess, T.; Matt, C. (2011): Zur Rolle der Informationstechnologie in der Prozessgestaltung, Zeitschrift für Controlling und Management (55:2), pp. 11-13.

 

Conference proceedings

Matt, C.; Huppatz, M.; Dowling, M.; Hess, T. (forthcoming): Digital Value-Added Services: Recommendations for Early Development, Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2020), Maui, USA.

Weiler, S.; Marheinecke, H.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2019): Trapped in the Status Quo? Cognitive Misperceptions’ Effects on Users’ Resistance to Mandatory Usage, Proceedings of the 23rd Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2019), Xi'an, China.

Becker, M.; Matt, C. (2019): The Impact of Persuasive Messages on the Disclosure of Personal Health Information, Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, USA.

Schöning, C.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2019): Personalised Nudging for more Data Disclosure? On the Adaption of Data Usage Policies Format to Cognitive Styles, Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, USA.

Weiler, S.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2019): Understanding User Uncertainty during the Implementation of Self-Service Business Intelligence: A Thematic Analysis, Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Maui, USA.

Martin, N.; Matt, C. (2018): Unblackboxing the Effects of Privacy Regulation on Startup Innovation, Proceedings of the 2018 International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), San Francisco, USA.

Köster, A.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2018): Das Smartphone als Steuerungseinheit im Smart Home: Determinanten der Nutzung am Beispiel von Smart-TVs, Proceedings der Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2018 (MKWI), Lüneburg.

Becker, M.; Matt, C.; Widjaja, T.; Hess, T. (2017): Understanding Privacy Risk Perceptions of Consumer Health Wearables – An Empirical Taxonomy, Proceedings of the 2017 International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS), Seoul, South Korea.

Morlok, T.; Schneider, K.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2017): Snap. Share. (Don't) Care? Ephemerality, Privacy Concerns, and the Use of Ephemeral Social Network Sites, Proceedings of the 23rd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Boston, USA, nominiert für Best-Paper-Award.

Becker, M.; Kolbeck, A.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2017): Understanding the Continuous Use of Fitness Trackers: A Thematic Analysis, Proceedings of the 21st Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS 2017), Langkawi, Malaysia.

Bründl, S.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2017): Consumer Use of Social Live Streaming Services: The Influence of Co-Experience and Effectance on Enjoyment, Proceedings of the 25th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2017), Guimarães, Portugal.

Köster, A.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2017): Does the Source Matter? How Referral Channels and Personal Communication Tools Affect Consumers Referral Propensity, Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2017), Hawaii, USA.

Berger, M.; Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Beer, S. (2016): Put it in its Place – Integrating Behavioral Inertia into Established IS Post-Adoption Models, Proceedings of the 20th Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems (PACIS), 2016, Chiayi, Taiwan.

Fuchs, C.; Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Hörndlein, C. (2016): Human vs. Algorithmic Recommendations in Big Data and the Role of Ambiguity, Proceedings of the 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), 2016, San Diego, USA.

Berger, B.; Matt, C. (2016): Media Meets Retail – Re-evaluating Content Quality in the Context of B2C E-Commerce, Proceedings of the 24th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2016), Istanbul, Türkei.

Morlok, T.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2016): Negative externe Effekte bei der Nutzung mobiler Endgeräte – Zur Rolle der Privatsphäre Dritter im Entscheidungskalkül des Nutzers, Proceedings der Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2016 (MKWI), Ilmenau.

Matt, C.; Peckelsen, P. (2016): Sweet Idleness, but Why? How Cognitive Factors and Personality Traits Affect Privacy-Protective Behavior, Proceedings of the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), Hawaii, USA.

Berger, M.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2016): Connectivity Is Ubiquitous, but Is it Beneficial? A Numerical Approach to Assess Individuals Valuations of Smart Home Systems, Proceedings of the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), Hawaii, USA.

Clemons, E. K.; Wilson, J.; Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Ren, F.; Jin, F. (2016): Online Trust: An International Study Of Subjects’ Willingness to Shop at Online Merchants, Including The Effects of Promises and of Third Party Guarantees, Proceedings of the 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016), Hawaii, USA.

Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Heinz, S. (2015): Should We Take a Closer Look? Extending Switching Theories from Singular Products to Complex Ecosystem Structures, Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2015), Fort Worth, USA.

Berger, B.; Matt, C.; Steininger, D.; Hess, T. (2015): Paper or Screen – Differences in Customer Preferences and Willingness to Pay between Traditional and Digital Content Services, Proceedings of the 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2015), Hawaii, USA, nominiert für Best-Paper-Award.

Köster, A.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2015): The Role of Communication Types on Referral Acceptance in Social Networks, Proceedings of the 21st Americas Conference of Information Systems (AMCIS 2015), Puerto Rico.

Matt, C.; Benlian, A.; Hess, T.; Weiß, C. (2014): Escaping from the Filter Bubble? The Effects of Novelty and Serendipity on Users’ Evaluations of Online Recommendations, Proceedings of the 35th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2014), Auckland, Neuseeland.

Matt, C.; Suffel, C. (2014): Integrierte Preisvergleiche in Suchmaschinen und deren Auswirkung auf das Geschäftsmodell klassischer Preissuchmaschinen, Proceedings der Multikonferenz Wirtschaftsinformatik 2014 (MKWI), Paderborn.

Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Weiß, C. (2013): The Differences between Recommender Technologies in their Impact on Sales Diversity, Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2013), Mailand, Italien.

Clemons, E. K.; Jin, F.; Wilson, J.; Ren, F.; Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Koh, N. (2013): The Role of Trust in Successful Ecommerce Websites in China: Field Observations and Experimental Studies, Proceedings of the 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2013), Hawaii, USA.

Matt, C. (2012): Consumer Product Search and the Decision between Intermediary and Supplier Online Shops, Proceedings of the 33th International Conference on Information Systems (ICIS 2012), Orlando, USA.

Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2012): Competing against Electronic Intermediaries: The Case of Digital Music, Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2012), Barcelona, Spanien.

Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2012): Facilitating Consumers' Evaluation of Experience Goods and the Benefits for Vendors, Proceedings of the 18th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2012), Seattle, USA.

Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2010): On the Architecture of Social News Services - What is Behind the Story? Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop for Technical, Economic and Legal Aspects of Business Models for Virtual Goods, Namur, Belgien.

 

Book chapters/other publications

Turel, O.; Matt, C.; Trenz, M.; Cheung, CMK; D’Arcy, J.; Qahri-Saremi, H.; Tarafdar, M. (2019): Panel Report: The Dark Side of the Digitization of the Individual, Internet Research (29:2), pp. 274-288.

Morlok, T.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2018): Perspektiven der Privatheitsforschung in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften - Konsumentenkalkül im Neuen Kontext und Datenmärkte, Friedewald, M. (Ed.): Privatheit und selbstbestimmtes Leben in der digitalen Welt - Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven auf aktuelle Herausforderungen des Datenschutzes (DuD Fachbeiträge), Springer Vieweg, pp. 179-220.

Morlok, T.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2017): Privatheitsforschung in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften: Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven, Arbeitsbericht des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Neue Medien, LMU München (1/2017).

Wiesböck, F.; Li, L.; Matt, C.; Hess, T.; Richter, A. (2017): How Management in the German Insurance Industry Can Handle Digital Transformation, Management Report des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Neue Medien, LMU München (1/2017).

Hess, T. Köster, A.; Matt, C. (2016): The Strategic Role of Communication Standards for Media Companies, Lugmayr, A.; Stojmenova, E.; Stanoevska, K.; Wellington, R. (Hrsg.): Information Systems and Management in Media and Entertainment Industries, Springer, pp. 83-99.

Morlok, T.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2015): Privatheit und Datenflut in der neuen Arbeitswelt, White Paper des Forums Privatheit und selbstbestimmtes Leben in der Digitalen Welt.

Bründl, S.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2015): Wertschöpfung in Datenmärkten, Forschungsbericht des Forum Privatheit und selbstbestimmtes Leben in der Digitalen Welt.

Morlok, T.; Matt, C.; Hess, T. (2015): Das Forum Privatheit - Ein Forschungsprojekt zur Bedeutung von Privatheit für Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und Individuen, MedienWirtschaft - Zeitschrift für Medienmanagement und Medienökonomie (12/2), pp. 62-65.

Hess, T.; Matt, C.; Hilbers, K. (2014): Bekannte und weniger bekannte Wege zu praxisrelevanter Forschung in der Wirtschaftsinformatik, Brenner, W.; Hess, T. (Hrsg.), Wirtschaftsinformatik in Wissenschaft und Praxis, Business Engineering, Springer Gabler, pp. 129-139.

Hess, T.; Matt, C.; Fleischmann, M.; Zafirova, G. (2014): Zur zukünftigen Rolle von Open Source Software im deutschen Softwaremarkt, Management Reports des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Neue Medien, LMU München (4/2014).

Hess, T.; Matt, C.; Berger, M. (2014): Streaming aus Anbietersicht: Viele Wege führen zum Ziel, Management Reports des Instituts für Wirtschaftsinformatik und Neue Medien, LMU München (2/2014).

Hess, T.; Matt, C. (2013): The Internet and the Value Chains of the Media Industry, Diehl, S.; Karmasin, M. (Hrsg.), Media and Convergence Management, Springer, Berlin/Heidelberg, pp. 37-55.

 

Monographs

Matt, C. (2015): A Consumer-Centric Approach to Determining the Value of Intermediaries in Electronic Markets, epubli, Berlin.

 

Edited books

Friedewald, M.; Obersteller, H.; Nebel, M; Bieker, F.; Rost, M. (2016): Datenschutzfolgenabschätzung - Ein neues Werkzeug für Aufsichtsbehörden und verantwortliche Stellen, Forum Privatheit und selbstbestimmtes Leben in der digitalen Welt, Peter Zoche, Regina Ammicht Quinn, Marit Hansen, Jessica Heesen, Thomas Hess, Jörn Lamla, Christian Matt, Alexander Roßnagel, Sabine Trepte, Michael Waidner (Hrsg.).

Karaboga, M.; Matzner, T.; Morlok, T.; Pittroff, F.; Nebel, M.; Ochs, C.; von Pape, T.; Pörschke, J.; Schütz, P.; Fhom, H. (2015): Das Versteckte Internet: Zu Hause – Im Auto – Am Körper, Forum Privatheit und selbstbestimmtes Leben in der digitalen Welt, Peter Zoche, Regina Ammicht Quinn, Marit Hansen, Jessica Heesen, Thomas Hess, Jörn Lamla, Christian Matt, Alexander Roßnagel, Sabine Trepte, Michael Waidner (Hrsg.).

 

Master:
  • Mangement of Digital Content Services
  • Digital Life Seminar 
Bachelor:
  • Introduction into E-Business 
CAS:
  • Digital Business Models
  • Strategic Aspects of Digital Transformation

Current Projects

  • Forum Privatheit - Selbstbestimmtes Leben in der digitalen Welt (supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research)
  • SBB AG: Resource optimization through digital services and technologies
Editor for scientific journals
Electronic Markets Associate Editor since 2019, previously in the Editorial Board since 2018
Internet Research Associate Editor since 2017
Information Systems Journal Guest Editor Special Issue "Digitization of the Individual"
Electronic Markets Guest Editor Special Issue "Digitization of the Individual"
Zeitschrift für Controlling & Management Section Editor 2009 - 2013
Track Chair/Co-Organiser at conferences
ECIS 2020 Track Chair "Digital Customer Experiences and Interactions"
ECIS 2019 Track Chair "Personal ICT: Design, Use and Impacts"
ECIS 2018 Track Chair "Personal ICT: Design, Use and Impacts"
ECIS 2016 - 2019 Co-Organizer "Workshop on the Digitization of the Individual (DOTI)"
MKWI 2016 Track Chair "Digitalisierung und Privacy"
Further conference activities
WI 2020 Associate Editor "Digital Innovations & Entrepreneurship"
ICIS 2019 Associate Editor "Cybersecurity, Privacy and Ethics of IS"
IEEE Conference on Business Informatics 2019 Program Committee "Business Innovations and Digital Transformations"
WI 2019 Associate Editor "Business Models and Digital Entrepreneurship"
Forum Privatheit 2018 Program Committee "Future of the Data Economy"
MKWI 2018 Program Committee "Strategic IT Management"
ECIS 2017 Associate Editor "Business Models in a Digitized World"
WI 2017 Associate Editor "User-Centric Information Systems"
WI 2017 Program Committee "Design of Human-Computer-Support Systems"
ECIS 2016 Associate Editor "Business Models in a Digitized World" and "Digital Media at the Intersection between Information Technology and Media Management"
MKWI 2016 Co-Organizer
"Business Models as a Topic for the BISE Community"
ICIS 2015 Associate Editor "E-Business and E-Government"
Forum Privatheit 2015 Program Committee "The Future of Informational Privacy"
MKWI 2014 Co-Organizer and Panelist Panel on "Digital Life"
Other project-related activities
"Digitalization Cases" Editorial Board Member Editors: N. Urbach, M. Röglinger
MISQ Executive Editorial Board Member Special Issue "Digital Business Transformation"
Functional Community Roles
Swiss Chapter of the Association for Information Systems (CHAIS) Secretary
Bavarian Research Institute for Digital Transformation (BIDT) Project Reviewer
German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) Project Reviewer
Austrian Academy of Sciences Project Reviewer
Memberships in scientific societies and associations
Association for Information Systems AIS
German Informatics Society
GI
German Academic Association for Business Research
VHB
Wissenschaftliche Kommission Wirtschaftsinformatik WKWI

Awards

  • 2018: Internet Research: Outstanding Associate Editor Award 2018
  • 2016: Electronic Markets: Outstanding Reviewer Award 2016
  • 2013: Dissertation Award of the LMU Management Alumni
  • 2004-2009: Scholarship of the Foundation of German Business ("Stiftung der Deutschen Wirtschaft")